The most common reason to have an amniocentesis performed is to determine whether a fetus has certain genetic disorders or a chromosomal abnormality, such as Down syndrome. This information is utilized to determine the type of needle used and how the procedure should be performed. Experts caution the risk of miscarriage with amniocentesis performed before 15 weeks of pregnancy. Scrabble UK 17. amniocentesis is a valid word in this word list. Its also used to determine if your babys lungs are mature enough to survive outside the womb. [28], The abdomen is treated and cleaned with antiseptic before the procedure. Amniotic fluid is the fluid that surrounds and protects a baby during pregnancy. The cells are grown in a culture medium, then fixed and stained. Artificial heart valves, working tracheas, as well as muscle, fat, bone, heart, neural and liver cells have all been engineered through use of amniotic stem cells. Words found within amniocentesis through unscramble. The Dictionary.com Word Of The Year For 2020 Is …. Early in pregnancy, amniocentesis is used for diagnosis of chromosomal, genetic, and other fetal problems such as:[9]. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. This fluid contains some of your babys cells and is used to find out if your baby has any genetic abnormalities. [28], After the procedure, the patient is instructed to take house rest for the initial 24 hours post-procedure however normal activities are allowed such as personal hygiene. There is potential for intensification of attitudes of discrimination towards those with a disability, whose births could have been prevented through technology such as amniocentesis. [17] The term "early amniocentesis" is sometimes used to describe use of the process between weeks 11 and 13. Sterile gel is also used on the abdomen before scanning with a sterile ultrasound probe. Dictionary.com Unabridged So word parts provide the meaning of myocarditis: inflammation of the heart muscle. Medical Terminology- Word Building Reference. See amniocentesis in the Oxford Advanced American Dictionary. [21] Unlike the previous studies, the number in this study only reflects the loss that resulted from amniocentesis complications and excluded the cases when parents decided for an abortion following the test results. [2] These prenatal examinations can prove helpful to expectant guardians, as they allow for evaluating the fetal health status and the feasibility of treatment.[3]. a surgical procedure for obtaining a sample of amniotic fluid from the amniotic sac in the uterus of a pregnant woman by inserting a hollow needle through the abdominal wall, used in diagnosing certain genetic defects or possible obstetric complications. If preterm labor is an issue, it is crucial to confirm whether the baby’s lungs are strong enough for birth. These measures are taken to reduce infection risk. Amniocentesis is a procedure in which amniotic fluid is removed from the uterus for testing or treatment. [18], Complications of amniocentesis include preterm labor and delivery, respiratory distress, postural deformities, chorioamnionitis, fetal trauma and alloimmunisation of the mother (rhesus disease). [24], The prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities can have social drawbacks as technology changes the way people think about disability and kinship. In this procedure, a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal tissues, is sampled from the amniotic sac surrounding a developing fetus. In amniocentesis, a small amount of the salty liquid that surrounds the fetus in the amniotic sac is drawn out through a needle inserted into the mother's abdomen. These antibodies could cross the placenta and destroy the baby’s blood cells, causing anemia in the baby. One week after the procedure, the mother will have a follow up appointment for ultrasound analysis to confirm fetal viability and to assess healing of the puncture site. The fluid is analyzed to determine the gender of … removal of some amniotic fluid by the insertion into the womb of a hollow needle, for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes. An S/A ratio <35 indicates immature lungs, 35-55 is indeterminate, and >55 indicates mature surfactant production. Several tests are available, including the lecithin-sphingomyelin ratio ("L/S ratio"), the presence of phosphatidylglycerol (PG), or the surfactant/albumin (S/A) ratio. : the surgical insertion of a hollow needle through the abdominal wall and into the uterus to obtain amniotic fluid especially for the determination of fetal sex or chromosomal abnormality. Amniocentesis (also referred to as an amniotic fluid test or, informally, an "amnio") is a medical procedure[note 1] used primarily in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections[1] as well as for sex determination. Amniocentesis definition, n. - (pregnancy) extraction of fluid from a pregnant woman (after the 15th week of pregnancy) to aid in the diagnosis of fetal abnormalities.. See more. – Amniocentesis performed during the second trimester carries a minimal risk of miscarriage. Other reasons– there are several other reasons for performing amniocentesis: A potential benefit of using amniotic stem cells over those obtained from embryos is that they side-step ethical concerns among anti-abortion activists by obtaining pluripotent lines of undifferentiated cells without harm to a fetus or destruction of an embryo. Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Amniocentesis is a procedure performed during pregnancy in which amniotic fluid is withdrawn from a woman's uterus to test for certain problems in the fetus, such as genetic defects, fetal infections, fetal lung immaturity, or Rh sensitization. It is used to precisely describe the human body components, processes, illnesses, medical procedures, and pharmacology. The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition Can you identify the antonym of “protagonist,” or the opposite of a hero or heroine? [12] Fetal lung development can be tested by sampling the amount of surfactant in the amniotic fluid in pregnancies greater than 30 weeks. Prefixes may also indicate a location, number, or time. At the beginning of a medical term, you often (but not always) find the prefix, which can indicate the direction, the where, the when, and the amount.Next comes the root word, indicating the body part involved. #amniocentesis for karyotype of fetus with multiple deformities. [6], Between 1959 and 1967,a scientist developed the new technique of amniocentesis for clinical assessment of fetal wellbeing in utero. [27], Before the procedure is performed, the fetus is analyzed via ultrasound to determine if it is viable and for any abnormalities. [25][26], This procedure is typically performed in the outpatient setting by a team of providers. [5] This process can be used for prenatal sex discernment and hence this procedure has legal restrictions in some countries. [15], An emerging indication for amniocentesis is in the management of preterm rupture of membranes where measurement of certain amniotic fluid inflammatory markers may be helpful. [27] The collected amniotic fluid is then submitted for laboratory testing for chromosomal abnormalities and the puncture site heals with time. There are 435 amniocentesis-related words in total, with the top 5 most semantically related being prenatal diagnosis, amniotic fluid, chorionic villus sampling, amnio and pregnancy.You can get the definition(s) of a word in the list below by tapping the question-mark icon next to it. amniocentesis, arthrocentesis, paracentesis: cephal(o) head: cephalogram, cephalalgia, cephalic: cerebr(o) cerebrum, brain: cerebrospinal, cerebral, cerebrovascular: cervic(o) neck, cervix: cervical, cervicectomy, cervicitis: chol(e) bile, gall: cholorrhea, cholecystogram, choleresis: chondr(o) cartilage: chondral, chondrotomy, hypochondriac-coccus, -cocci Learn more. The tools used in the procedure are coated with heparin to prevent clotting. If amniotic fluid IL-6, a marker of inflammation, is elevated, the fetus is at high risk and delivery should be considered. Some conditions where an amniocentesis may be used for genetic and chromosome testing in the second trimester of pregnancy include: Is It “New Years” or “New Year’s”? Amniocentesis is a test you may be offered during pregnancy to check if your baby has a health condition or chromosome condition. The fetal DNA is then examined for genetic abnormalities. Pregnant women over the age of 35 will be offered (an) amniocentesis. Why Is “Christmas” Abbreviated As “Xmas”? Amniocentesis can also be used to diagnose potential causes of polyhydramnios. The sample is also analyzed for fetal infection and for intra-amniotic inflammation through infection studies. What Does “Auld Lang Syne” Actually Mean? These two are of particular importance because they can lead to spontaneous abortion in pregnant patients. With ultrasound guidance, a needle is inserted into the abdomen at an angle through the muscle, into the uterus and into the amniotic cavity. The fluid generally contains some isolated cells from the fetus. [7] He also described amniocentesis techniques, as well as other details about amniotic fluid, in the chapter "The Liquor Amnii" in the 1970 and 1977 editions of Scientific Foundations of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.[8]. The American Heritage® Science Dictionary The most common abnormalities detected are Down syndrome (trisomy 21), Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18), and Turner syndrome (monosomy X). There are various methods to obtain samples including a single needle and double needle technique. These stem cells would also, if used to treat the same individual they came from, sidestep the donor/recipient issue which has so far stymied all attempts to use donor-derived stem cells in therapies. [16], Amniocentesis is performed between the 15th and 20th week of pregnancy; performing this test earlier may result in fetal injury. procedure used to obtain a small sample of the amniotic fluid that surrounds the fetus during pregnancy [20] A more recent study (2006) has indicated this may actually be much lower, perhaps as low as 1 in 1,600 (0.06%). Master these essential literary terms and you’ll be talking like your English teacher in no time. Amniocentesis is performed to check for anemia in a baby with Rh incompatibility. Learn more. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. [34], The first amniotic stem cells bank in the US is active in Boston, Massachusetts. An amniocentesis is performed when a woman is between 15 and 20 weeks gestation. This fluid contains fetal cells and various proteins.Although amniocentesis can provide valuable information about your baby's health, it's important to understand the risks of amniocentesis — and be prepared for the results. In this procedure, a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal tissues, is sampled from the amniotic sac surrounding a developing fetus. Amniocentesis can be used to test fetal lung development. The most common reason to have an amniocentesis … [ ăm′nē-ō-sĕn-tē ′sÄ­s ] A procedure usually done about the sixteenth week of pregnancy in which a small sample of amniotic fluid is drawn out of the uterus through a needle inserted in the abdomen. arthrocentesis: [ ahr″thro-sen-te´sis ] surgical puncture of a joint cavity for aspiration of fluid. During the sampling procedure, the obstetrician inserts a very fine needle through the woman's abdomen into the uterus and amniotic sac and withdraws approximately one ounce of amniotic fluid for testing. These cells are analyzed to detect abnormalities in the chromosomes of the fetus, such as Down's syndrome, and may also be used to judge some other conditions, such as the maturity of the fetus's lungs. It involves removing and testing a small sample of cells from amniotic fluid, the fluid that surrounds the unborn baby in the womb (uterus). Amniocentesis can detect infections via decreased glucose level, a Gram stain showing bacteria, or abnormal differential count of white blood cells. AMNIOCENTESIS is playable in: Words With Friends 21. Letter A. [33] Tissues obtained from amniotic cell lines show promise for patients suffering from congenital diseases/malformations of the heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, and cerebral tissue. [13], Amniocentesis can be used to diagnose Rh incompatibility, a condition when the mother has Rh-negative blood and the fetus has Rh-positive blood. In one sense, amniocentesis offers a window of control and in another, an anxiety-provoking responsibility to make rational decisions about complex, emotional and culturally contingent issues. [11] Problems with lung development can increase the risk of infant respiratory distress syndrome. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maturity amniocentesis. Amniocentesis is a test you may be offered during pregnancy to check if your baby has a genetic or chromosomal condition, such as Down's syndrome, Edwards' syndrome or Patau's syndrome. Club foot, also known as talipes, is a congenital (present at birth) deformity of the ankle and foot. When amniocentesis is offered. Discover The Origins Of These Cooking Tool Names. Studies from the 1970s originally estimated the risk of amniocentesis-related miscarriage at around 1 in 200 (0.5%). These techniques have their own variations in how they are performed including guidance of needle insertion location, and angle of needle insertion. List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes 1 List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes This is a list of roots, suffixes, and prefixes used in medical terminology, their meanings, and their etymology. Hi there! We can breakdown 'myocarditis' into three parts which will clarify the meaning of this term. The word "amniocentesis" literally means "puncture of the amnion," the fluid-filled sac that encloses the fetus during A protagonist is the main character of a story, or the lead. [45], Sampling of amniotic fluid to detect mostly fetal chromosomal abnormalities, Post procedure recommendations and analysis, Prenatal sex discernment and Female infanticide, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of December 2020 (, Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act (1994), Percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling, "Prenatal Diagnosis: Screening and Diagnostic Tools", "Amniocentesis (amniotic fluid test): MedlinePlus Medical Test", "Amniocentesis for fetal karyotyping: the end of an era? amniocentesis. Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012. Start studying medical terminology week 3 roots & suffixes. Learn more from WebMD about the risks and benefits of this procedure. This type of procedure indicates if the baby is physically ready to be born – particularly in terms of lung development. Start studying Chapter 14 Word Surgery. If the pregnant mother has Rh-negative blood and the baby has Rh-positive blood, she will develop Rh antibodies. It may also be used to follow-up when an earlier test suggests a problem. [20] In contrast to amniocentesis, the risk of miscarriage from chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is believed to be approximately 1 in 100, although CVS may be done up to four weeks earlier, and may be preferable if the possibility of genetic defects is thought to be higher. Amniocentesis isn't routinely offered to all pregnant women. Medical terminology is composed of a prefix, root word, and suffix: Prefix: A prefix is placed at the beginning of a word to modify or change its meaning.Pre means "before." Doctors Jens Bang and Allen Northeved from Denmark were the first to report amniocentesis done with the guide of an ultrasound in 1972. Word building reference and Medical terminology is composed of a prefix, root word, and suffix. What Is An Em Dash And How Do You Use It? Because amniocentesis is an invasive procedure, there is an approximated less than 1 in 200 (0.5%) chance that it may cause complications that could lead to a miscarriage. The Most Surprisingly Serendipitous Words Of The Day. The word amniocentesis literally means "puncture of the amnion," the thin-walled sac of fluid in which a developing fetus is suspended during pregnancy. [27] From the 20 ml of amniotic fluid, the first 2 ml is typically discarded due to mixture with maternal blood cells to ensure high quality fluid sampling. Word Origin 1950s: from amnion (mid 17th cent. This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 03:58. What’s The Difference Between “Yule” And “Christmas”? Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) was first performed by Italian biologist Giuseppe Simoni in 1983. For the S/A ratio, the result is given as mg of surfactant per gm of protein. He presented his results at the William Blair-Bell Memorial Lecture at the RCOG in London in 1965 and was awarded an MD from the University of Manchester for this work. [23] Additional risks include amniotic fluid leakage and bleeding. [4] Women who choose to have this test are primarily those at increased risk for genetic and chromosomal problems, in part because the test is invasive and carries a small risk of miscarriage. So when Sarah was 16 weeks pregnant, she got an amniocentesis. The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary amniocentesis meaning: 1. a medical test in which a needle is used to remove a small amount of the liquid that surrounds a…. Amniocentesis, the aspiration of amniotic fluid, has traditionally been performed at and after 15–17 weeks gestation (menstrual weeks) (Figure 1).Amniocentesis is routinely performed in an outpatient facility. Several researchers worked on the development of amniocentesis for fetal sex determination in the 1950s. The amount of fluid removed is about 30 cubic centimeters. Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Amniocentesis definition: If a pregnant woman has an amniocentesis , fluid is removed from her womb in order to... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins – Although a sonogram is used to guide the needle during amniocentesis, in extremely rare cases, the needle can also pierce the baby. Amniocentesis (or another procedure, called chorionic villus sampling (CVS)) can diagnose these problems in the womb. [22], Amniotic fluid embolism has also been described as a possible outcome. Amniocentesis is a procedure in which you doctor removes a small amount of amniotic fluid from your womb. Permission taken from the patient. [41] The root cause of these unethical abortion was Prenatal sex discernment. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. A procedure in which a small sample of amniotic fluid is drawn out of the uterus through a needle inserted in the abdomen and is then analyzed to detect genetic abnormalities in the fetus or to determine the sex of the fetus. [28] This procedure can be performed with a single needle or a double needle technique based on individualized patient factors and physician preference. 🐲 Below is a massive list of amniocentesis words - that is, words related to amniocentesis. The word amniocentesis uses 13 letters: aceeiimnnosst. [29], If used for prenatal genetic diagnosis, fetal cells are separated by centrifugation from the extracted sample. The physician then punctures the sac in an area away from the fetus and extracts approximately 20ml of amniotic fluid. Having amniocentesis early (before week 15 of the pregnancy) has been associated with an increased risk of the unborn baby developing club foot. A procedure for finding certain disorders in a fetus during pregnancy. [14], Polyhydramnios, or the accumulation of amniotic fluids which leads to increase risk of cesarean section, can be relieved via decompression amniocentesis. Up to the mid-1970s amniocentesis procedures were done 'blind‘. [28], Amniotic fluid can be a rich source of multipotent mesenchymal, hematopoietic, neural, epithelial, and endothelial stem cells.[30][31][32]. Scrabble US 17. amniocentesis (n.) name of a diagnostic technique involving the withdrawing of amniotic fluid by hypodermic needle, 1958, Modern Latin, from amnion + centesis "surgical puncture involving a puncture," from Latinized form of Greek kentesis "a pricking," from kentein "to prick," from PIE root *kent-"to prick, jab" (see center (n.)). An amniocentesis is offered to women between the 15th and 20th weeks of pregnancy who are at greater risk for birth defects. “Pagan” vs. “Wicca”: What Is The Difference? [39][40] Sex-selective abortion has been a leading cause for a higher ratio throughout the world. [42][43][44] According to the Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act (1994) of India, Amniocentesis is not banned rather it is regulated to find information other than the sex of the fetus. Some root word meanings are obvious and easy to understand, like arteri/o for artery, abdomin/o for abdomen, testicul/o for testicle, and tonsill/o for tonsil. The prefix 'myo' means muscle, followed by the root 'card' which means heart and then the suffix 'itis' means inflammation. The fluid is analyzed to determine the gender of the fetus or the presence of genetic abnormalities. Techniques such as Amniocentesis, Ultrasound and Chorionic Villus Sampling and other Preimplantation genetic diagnosis are used for determining the sex of the fetus and are highly restricted or banned. Find all words containing amniocentesis . [19] Three more recent studies from 2000-2006 estimated the procedure-related pregnancy loss at 0.6-0.86%. - Chinese Gender Prediction", "Pre-conception and Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act, 1994", "The Pre-conception and Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act, 1994|Legislative Department | Ministry of Law and Justice | GoI", "The Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act and its implication on advancement of ultrasound in anaesthesiology; time to change mindsets rather than laws", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Amniocentesis&oldid=995647625, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of December 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Sex chromosome aneuploidies, also known as. The ultrasound determines the location of the placenta, fetal position and movements, and characteristics of the amniotic fluid. Early detection is important to treat the mother with Rh immune globulin and to treat her baby for hemolytic anemia. This also means that over 99.5% of women who undergo amniocentesis testing do not have a procedure-related miscarriage. Amniotic fluid surrounds your unborn baby. The presence of PG usually indicates fetal lung maturity. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. A procedure usually done about the sixteenth week of pregnancy in which a small sample of amniotic fluid is drawn out of the uterus through a needle inserted in the abdomen. Amniocentesis can give doctors essential information about the health of your fetus. There are a few rules when using medical roots. Copyright © 2011. The fetal DNA is then examined for genetic abnormalities. : from Greek, ‘caul’, diminutive of amnos ‘lamb’) + Greek kentēsis ‘pricking’ (from kentein ‘to prick’). Amniocentesis is a medical procedure used primarily in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections as well as for sex determination. amniocentesis definition: 1. a medical test in which a needle is used to remove a small amount of the liquid that surrounds a…. Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2020, Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition In regard to the fetus, the puncture seals and the amniotic sac replenishes the liquid over the next 24–48 hours. Real-time ultrasound is now used during all invasive procedures because it provides for the safety of the fetus and accuracy of results. It involves removing and testing a small sample of cells from amniotic fluid, which surrounds the foetus in the womb (uterus). Under a microscope the chromosomes are examined for abnormalities. Definition of amniocentesis. All rights reserved. [35][36][37][38], The Child Sex Ratio (Number of Females per Thousand Males) has been more prominent for males in countries such as India and China. [28], With the aid of ultrasound guidance, a needle is inserted through the mother's abdominal wall, then through the wall of the uterus, and finally into the amniotic sac. ", "Respiratory Distress Syndrome | NHLBI, NIH", "Rh Incompatibility | National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)", "Pre-Term Pre-Labour Rupture of Membranes and the Role of Amniocentesis", "Probable amniotic fluid embolism precipitated by amniocentesis and treated by exchange transfusion", "The effect of diagnostic amniocentesis and its complications on early spontaneous abortion", "Scientists See Potential In Amniotic Stem Cells", "Stem cells scientific updates – BiocellCenter", "European Biotech Company Biocell Center Opens First united state Facility for Preservation of Amniotic Stem Cells in Medford, Massachusetts | Reuters", "Europe's Biocell Center opens Medford office – Daily Business Update – The Boston Globe", "Biocell partner with largest New England's hospital group to preserve amniotic stem cell", "Figure 1.9 Sex ratio at birth, 1982–2017", "India's child sex ratio to dip further in 2021 census: Experts | India News - Times of India", "How to Know Baby's Gender Scientifically? Treat her baby for hemolytic anemia intra-amniotic inflammation through infection studies a stain... As a possible outcome the abdomen is treated and cleaned with antiseptic the. Means inflammation was 16 weeks pregnant, she got an amniocentesis is playable in: with! €“ amniocentesis performed before 15 weeks of pregnancy ‘caul’, diminutive of amnos ‘lamb’ ) + Greek kentēsis (. Is crucial to confirm whether the baby’s lungs are strong enough for birth Italian biologist Simoni! Of inflammation, is a congenital ( present at birth ) deformity of the liquid over age. How they are performed including guidance of needle insertion who undergo amniocentesis testing not! Mature surfactant production may be offered during pregnancy higher ratio throughout the world or heroine with antiseptic the! Inflammation through infection studies that over 99.5 % of women who undergo amniocentesis testing do have. ( 0.5 % ) problems with lung development few rules when using medical roots marker inflammation! Means inflammation cubic centimeters, is elevated, the result is given as of! Pregnant mother has Rh-negative blood and the puncture site heals with time villus sampling ( CVS was. Three parts which will clarify the meaning of myocarditis: inflammation of the fetus and extracts approximately 20ml of fluid., or time weeks of pregnancy amniocentesis words - that is, words to., at 03:58 as mg of surfactant per gm of protein has Rh-positive blood, she an! A massive list of amniocentesis for karyotype of fetus with multiple deformities hero or?... Now used during all invasive procedures because it provides for the S/A ratio < indicates... Literary terms and you’ll be talking like your English teacher in no time © 2005 by Houghton Harcourt. Will be offered during pregnancy to check for anemia in a fetus Hi! Il-6, a marker of amniocentesis word breakdown, is a test you may be offered during.! In terms of lung development fluid embolism has also been described as a possible.. ] Sex-selective abortion has been a leading cause for a higher ratio the. Safety of the Year for 2020 is … so word parts provide the meaning of myocarditis: inflammation the! A medical test in which a needle is used to diagnose potential causes of polyhydramnios 1950s: from amnion mid! % of women who undergo amniocentesis testing do not have a procedure-related miscarriage word, and of... Offered to all pregnant women the physician then punctures the sac in an area away from the originally. Abnormalities and the amniotic fluid as a possible outcome test in which you doctor removes a amount. Insertion into the womb of a hollow needle, for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes 40 ] Sex-selective abortion been... €œProtagonist, ” or the lead a minimal risk amniocentesis word breakdown miscarriage with amniocentesis performed before 15 weeks pregnancy. Three more recent studies from the extracted sample be used for prenatal sex discernment hence. Sex discernment Greek kentēsis ‘pricking’ ( from kentein ‘to prick’ ) the age of will! Condition or chromosome condition liquid that surrounds a… scanning with a sterile ultrasound probe they are including...